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The domain age indicates how old a domain is, as the name already says. For search engines such as Google, the domain age is one of several ranking factors that can positively influence the ranking of a website. Websites or domains that have existed for a long time and are therefore older are basically assumed in the positive sense that they provide the user with better and, for example, more credible results. A relatively new and therefore young website or domain must first prove itself against an established domain and show that it is equal or even better. Over longer periods of time, qualitative content usually prevails in search engines such as Google. In the case of young domains, the effect can often be observed that they achieve an above-average ranking for a certain period of time.
Especially very common and relevant domain names are in the vast majority of cases already out of stock and can only be purchased, provided they are offered for sale. The highest price ever paid for a domain worldwide was 13 million US dollars. The buyer paid this price for the domain sex.com.
Even if a ranking factor is seen in the domain age, it should not be overrated. Especially not if the age of a certain domain to a possibly competing domain is only a few days or weeks. The question as to how Google determines the age of a domain, for example, was long assumed to be based on the Whois entry. However, this is not the case because Google uses this data to crawl websites. If a website was first discovered by your own search engine crawler and the domain actually exists for Google, this is referred to as the birth of the domain, at least for Google.
Far more important than the domain age for e.g. Google is the quality of the domain, thus beside the provided contents also the links which refer to this domain. If you are thinking about buying an already existing domain, you should consider the following.
If a domain exists, but has not provided any content for a long time, the links that refer to the corresponding domain will also go back. A normal process, because if the link provider determines that a link leads to nothing, he removes it. The consequence of this is that the value of a domain can drop significantly and can no longer build on old successes. Therefore, when you buy a domain, you should urgently pay attention to how long it has been "idle".
If, on the other hand, you want to take over a domain whose website is still online, you should pay attention to the quality of the website. If such a domain has a quality problem and Google has memorized this website in a negative sense, this can make the work on the website more difficult afterwards. Reasons for penalties often lie in the backlink profile of a domain, but can also have been imposed due to poor or thin content.
With such a domain, the webmaster does not start from zero, but in the worst case scenario in the negative range. Often a lot of money has to be made available to convince Google of the new and better quality of the domain.